Diary 2

Instructional Variables


This picture tell us about a student who get frustrated because he has so many problem. As a result he is demotivated to learn in the classroom. If you find this kind of student what would you do?

Teacher has a responsibility to make the students are motivated to learn.in order to do that there are several ways to increase students’ motivation to learn in classroom which is by implementing good instructional variables. What are they? Let’s read short explanation below about instructional variables and later you will have a chance to know the example of how instructional variables are implemented in the classroom, and have exercise to identify the instructional variables.

According to Egen and Kauchak (2010) there are 4 instructional variables that can be used to increase students motivation, here are the explanation

1. Introductory focus: Attracting students’ attention. A lesson beginning that attracts attention and provides a conceptual framework for the lesson.

2. Personalization: Links to students’ lives. The process of using intellectually and/or emotionally relevant examples to illustrate a topic

3. Involvement: Increasing intrinsic interest. Using hands-on activities to promote involvement and using open- ended questioning to promote involvement.

4. Feedback: Meeting the need to understand. Evaluative feedback &instructional feedback.

How this instructional variable can be implemented in the classroom? Let’s check the example of mini lesson below to know the implementation of each instructional variables:


Illustration Mini Lesson

Topic : Writing Summaries of Informational Articles

Grade : Fourth Grade

Time : 30 Minutes sessions

Picture: http://www.emergingedtech.com

Mr. Firly plans to teach his students how to write a summary, only a few of his students seem familiar with the term summary writing, and none of the fourth graders know how to write one. Writing summary is one of the state’s fourth-grade standards, and the prompt for the state’s fourth grades writing assessment often requires summary writing. The teacher recognize that his students need both instruction in how to write a summary and many opportunities to practice summary writing if they are to be successful on the state’s achievement tests.

1. Introduce the Topic (Introductory Focus)

Mr. Firly explains that a summary is a brief statement of the main points of an article.

He presents a poster with these characteristic of a summary:

– A summary tells the big ideas.

– A summary is organized to show connections between the big ideas.

– A summary is written a student’s own words.

From this assignment Mr Firly must consider carefully the role of objective, scope, sequence, curriculum, pacing, types and levels of learning when planning instruction. This part is example of introductory focus in which in at the beginning lesson it attracts students’ attention and provides a conceptual framework for the lesson.

2. Personalization

The next activity Mr. Firly distribute several types of article which are taken from different media such as newspaper, magazines, printed online material from newspaper, school newsletter, etc. After that he asks the students to choose one article based on their interest that later on will be used as exercise to write a summary. This is one example of personalization in which Mr. Firly give the students various choices on article based on what they like.

3. Involvement

After distributing the article Mr. Firly as students to work in group which has the same article. In the group they should make the summary of the article and draw the diagram like what has been explained. In this part it is the implementation of involvement. The students are asked to actively participate in the teaching and learning process.

4. Feedback

After the students finish with the task, Mr. Firly asks the group to present the result and ask other groups the give comment to the presentation. After that he also give his comment and suggestion to the presentation. This activity involve the fourth instructional variable which is feedback. By giving comment and suggestion to the group who present the material both from teacher and students, it can help them to know how well they have done the task and give them insight on what should be improved.

Now, you can classified into various categories in introductory focus, personalization, involvement and feedback. The model illustrated by paragraph. Be sure to provide a rationale for your choice in each case.

Theory to Practice:A synthesis of Wangi’s lesson

1. “We better get moving,” Susan urged Jamal as they approached the door of Wangi’s classroom. “The bell is going ring, and you know how Wangi is about this class. She thinks it’s SO important.”(………)

2. “Did you finish your homework?” Jamal asked and then stopped himself. “What am I talking about? You’ve done your home in every class since I first knew you.” (…..)

3. “I don’t mind it that much. . . . It bothers me when I don’t get something, and sometimes it’s even fun. My dad helps me. He says he wants to keep up with the world,” Susan responded with a laugh. (…..)

4. “In some classes, I just do enough to get a decent grade, but not in here,” Jamal responded. “I used to hate history, but Wangi sort of makes you think. It’s actually interesting the way she’s always telling us about the way we are because of something that happened a zillion years ago. . . . I never thought about this stuff in that way before.” (…..)

5. “Gee, Mrs. Wangi, that assignment was impossible,” Harvey grumbled as he walked in. (…)


Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010). Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms (8th Ed). New Jersey: Pearson Education International

Exercise taken from



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